New Features

Reprinted from Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index, Edition 22.
© 2003
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.

Edition 22 is the first edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification to be produced in
the context of the web environment. The web has enabled us to update the DDC
continuously and provide those updates regularly to our users. The web has expanded
our access to information sources and facilitated timely cooperation with our
international user base. It has also challenged us to provide features that promote
efficiency and accuracy in classification.

Continuous Updating
Edition 22 reflects the continuous updating policy in effect since the publication of
Edition 21 in 1996. Edition 21 was the first DDC edition to be published in print and
electronic form simultaneously. We have used the electronic versions and supplemental
monthly web postings as our chief vehicles for delivering updates to our users. From
1996 through 2001, Dewey for Windows was issued annually. Since 2000, WebDewey
has been the main source for updates and a fully updated version is released quarterly.
Since 1997, we have also posted selected new numbers and changes to the DDC on a
monthly basis on our web site ( All of these updates have been
incorporated into Edition 22.

New Numbers and Topics
Edition 22 contains many new numbers and topics. These range from new
geographic provisions, e.g., the updating of administrative regions in Quebec, to new
numbers throughout the DDC for emerging topics in fields such as computer science and
engineering, sociology, medicine, and history. Many new built number entries and
additional terms have been added to the Relative Index to cover sought topics and
provide a wider base of entry vocabulary. We have waited for the publication of Edition
22 to introduce changes that have an impact across the DDC and substantial changes to

International Cooperation
Edition 22 has benefited from the ongoing advice of the Decimal Classification
Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) and our translation partners. Both groups provide a
diverse outlook that is reflected in improvements to terminology throughout Edition 22,
and in updated developments, particularly in geographic areas, law, political parties,
language, literature, and historical periods.

Classifier Efficiency
Two striking changes in Edition 22, the removal of Table 7 and the streamlining of
the Manual, have been motivated by a desire to promote classifier efficiency. We have
removed Table 7 and replaced it with direct use of notation already available in the

schedules and in notation 08 from Table 1. We have reviewed each Manual entry with an
eye toward classifier efficiency. Information easily accommodated in notes in the tables
and schedules has been transferred from the Manual, and redundant information already
in the schedules and tables has been eliminated from the Manual. We have converted the
Library of Congress Decimal Classification Division DDC application policies
previously described in the Manual into standard Dewey practice. We have moved basic
instructions on the use of the Dewey Decimal Classification to the Introduction, and
background information to Dewey Decimal Classification: Principles and Application.
We have revised the remaining Manual entries in a consistent style to promote quick
understanding and efficient use.

Major Changes in Edition 22
In addition to the removal of Table 7 and the streamlining of the Manual, there are
several major changes introduced in Edition 22. We have completely updated 004–006
Data processing Computer science. In Edition 21, we initiated a two-edition plan to
reduce Christian bias in 200 Religion. Edition 22 contains the rest of the relocations and
expansions in 200 Religion outlined in that plan. We have updated developments and
terminology for social groups and institutions in 305–306, and removed many near
duplicate provisions in that schedule. We have introduced several improvements to 340
Law that relate to the law of nations, human rights, and intergovernmental organizations.
We have introduced a substantial update in 510 Mathematics, including the relocation of
some topics to the new development at 518 Numerical analysis. We have updated and
expanded 610 Medicine and health, and improved indexing for medical topics. We have
moved facilities for travelers from 647.94 to 910.46 and to specific area numbers in
913–919, and introduced updated historical periods throughout 930–990. Likewise, we
have updated Table 2 Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons. We have changed
the name of Table 5 from “Racial, Ethnic, National Groups” to “Ethnic and National
Groups” to reflect the de-emphasis on race in current scholarship. We have also greatly
expanded provisions for American native peoples and languages in Tables 5 and 6. A
complete list of relocations, discontinuations, and reused numbers in Edition 22 is
available immediately following Tables 1–6. A selected list of new numbers, revisions,
and expansions in Edition 22 follows.

Selected List of Changes in Edition 22

Selected Changes in the Tables

Table 1. Standard Subdivisions

—029 Commercial miscellany
Subdivisions discontinued to —029 and reused immediately for
geographic treatment

Table 2. Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons

—23 Collected persons treatment of members of specific ethnic and national
New number*

—29 Persons treatment of nonhumans
New number*

—411–414 Scotland
Revised and expanded*

—42 England and Wales
Revised and expanded*

—431–436 Germany and Austria
Revised and expanded

—437 Czech Republic and Slovakia
Revised and expanded*

—438 Poland
Revised and expanded*

—44 France and Monaco
Revised and expanded*

—451–457 Italy
Revised and expanded*

—541–548 India
Revised and expanded

—54911 Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Relocated from —54912*

—549149 Islāmābād Capital Territory
Relocated from —549142

—5492 Bangladesh
Revised and expanded

—55 Iran
Revised and expanded

—5987 East Timor
Relocated from —5986*

—624–629 Sudan

—632–634 Ethiopia

—642–646 Morocco
—648 Western Sahara
Revised and expanded

—669 Nigeria

—6751 Democratic Republic of the Congo

—682–687 Republic of South Africa
Revised and expanded*

—714 Quebec
Revised and expanded

—719 Northern territories
Revised and expanded*

—728537 Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte
Relocated from —728532

—7287 Panama
Revised and expanded*

—78864 Broomfield County [of Colorado]
Relocated from —78863, —78872 —78881, and —78884*

—7951 Western Oregon
—7955 Eastern Oregon
—7971 Eastern Washington
—7976 Western Washington
New numbers*

—85 Peru

—861 Colombia
Revised and expanded*

—881 Guyana
—883 Suriname
Revised and expanded

Table 3B. Subdivisions for Works by or about More than One Author

—30877 Picaresque fiction
New number

Table 3C. Notation to Be Added Where Instructed in Table 3B, 700.4, 791.4,

—32 Places
Travel relocated from —355

—35 Humanity
Revised and expanded

—36 Physical and natural phenomena
Agriculture, scientific themes, and comprehensive works on scientific
and technical themes relocated from —356

—377 Magic and witchcraft
New number

Table 4. Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families

—31 Specialized dictionaries

—5 Grammar of the standard form of the language Syntax of the standard
form of the language

—813 Spelling (Orthography) and pronunciation
New number

—89 Use of a spoken language or a manually coded form of a spoken
language for communication with and by deaf persons
New number and subdivisions*

Table 5. Ethnic and National Groups

“Racial” was removed from the name of this table

—05 Persons of mixed ancestry with ethnic origins from more than one
Relocated from —04

—09 Europeans and people of European descent
Relocated from —034

—97 North American native peoples
—98 South American native peoples
Revised and expanded

Table 6. Languages

—395 North Germanic languages (Nordic languages)
—396 Old Norse (Old Icelandic), Icelandic, Faeroese
—397 Swedish
—398 Danish and Norwegian

—91469 Konkani
New number*

—963989 Ndebele (South Africa)
Relocated from —963977*

—97 North American native languages
—98 South American native languages
Revised and expanded

Table 7. Groups of Persons

This table was deleted and replaced by direct use of notation already available from
the schedules and in notation 08 from Table 1. A complete list of revised add
instructions is provided in the introduction to “Relocations” immediately following
Tables 1–6


Selected Changes in the Schedules

005.18 Microprogramming and microprograms
Relocated from 005.6

005.5 General purpose application programs
Relocated from 005.3 and expanded

005.52 Word processing
Relocated from 652.5

005.722 Character sets
New number

006.74 Markup languages
006. 8 Virtual reality
New numbers

011.37 [General bibliographies of] Audiovisual and visual media

011.384 [General bibliographies of] Audiobooks (Talking books)
011.39 [General bibliographies of] Electronic resources
New numbers

011.8 General bibliographies of works by specific kinds of authors
Relocated from 013

027.42 Library outreach programs
027.652 Legislative reference bureaus
New numbers

070.57973 Web publications
New number

150.1986 Humanistic psychology
150.1987 Transpersonal psychology
New numbers

152.44 Guilt and shame
New number

174.2 [Ethics of] Medical professions
Revised and expanded*


201–209 Specific aspects of religion
Relocated from 291; revised and expanded

261.88 [Christianity and the] Environment
New number; ecology relocated from 261.836

297.938 Sources [of Bahai Faith]

299.161 Specific aspects of Celtic religions
299.511 Specific aspects of Chinese religions
New numbers and subdivisions

299.6 Religions originating among Black Africans and people of Black African
299.7 Religions of North American native origin
299.8 Religions of South American native origin
Revised and expanded

302.231 Digital media
New number

305 Social groups
306 Culture and institutions
Revised and expanded

320.546 Black nationalism
320.557 Islamic fundamentalism
320.558 Black Muslim movement
320.58 Environmentalist political ideologies
New numbers

324.243 Parties of Germany

330.155 Miscellaneous schools [of economics]
Revised and expanded

331.21647 Profit sharing
331.21649 Employee stock ownership plans
331.2524 Pension funds
331.2552 Unemployment compensation
331.2554 Health services
New numbers

331.256 Work environment
New number and subdivisions

331.257 Hours
Revised and expanded

331.88 Labor unions (Trade unions)

332.024 Personal finance
Revised and expanded

332.17522 Checking accounts
332.54 Barter
332.632283 [Stock] Options
New numbers

332.645 Speculation

332.67 Investments in specific industries, in specific kinds of enterprise, by
specific kinds of investors; international investment; investment guides
Revised and expanded

333.9523 [Economics of] Nonnative species
333.9543 [Economics of] Nonnative animals
New numbers

338.69 Worker control of industry
338.749 Government corporations
New numbers

340 Law
The heading at 341 was changed from “International law” to “Law of
nations.” Throughout 341, “International governmental organizations”
was changed to “Intergovernmental organizations.” A topic in either
341.4 or 341.7 that had a corresponding domestic law provision in
342–347 was relocated to the appropriate number in 342–347

342.0877 [Jurisdiction over] Age groups
New number and subdivisions

343.012–.019 Military and defense law
343.08 Regulation of commerce (trade)

343.0939 Pipeline transportation
New number and subdivisions

346.016 Marriage

346.0171 Unborn children
New number

349.2 Law of regional intergovernmental organizations
New number. Similar new numbers at 342.2, 343.2, 344.2, 345.2,
346.2, 347.2, and 348.2

362.1042584 Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
New number*

363.34926 Disasters caused by ice storms
New number*

363.73849 Specific types of toxic chemicals
New number and subdivisions

370.1528 [Educational psychology of] Behavior modification
Relocated from 370.153

370.1529 [Educational psychology of] Intelligence
370.1532 [Educational psychology of] Personality
370.1534 [Educational psychology of] Emotions
New numbers

371.895 School assemblies
New number

372.373 [Elementary education in] Nutrition and food
372.378 [Elementary education in] Substance abuse
New numbers

378.121 Academic status [in higher education]

381 Commerce (Trade)
Broadened to include comprehensive works on commerce, relocated
here from 380.1, and domestic commerce

381.11 Shopping centers
381.177 Online auctions
381.186 Street fairs
381.347 Better business bureaus
New numbers

394.2612 Kwanzaa
394.2628 Mother’s Day
New numbers

415 Grammar of standard forms of languages Syntax of standard
forms of languages

419 Sign languages
Revised and expanded*

439.5 North Germanic languages (Nordic languages)
439.6 Old Norse (Old Icelandic), Icelandic, Faeroese
439.7 Swedish
439.8 Danish and Norwegian

491.469 Konkani
Relocated from 491.467*

495.17 Historical and geographic variations, modern nongeographic variations of

511.3 Mathematical logic (Symbolic logic)
Revised and expanded

512.2 Groups and group theory
512.3 Fields
512.4 Rings
512.55 Topological and related algebras and groups

512.6 Category theory, homological algebra, K-theory
New number and subdivisions relocated from different parts of 510

512.78 Specific fields of numbers
New number and subdivisions


512.94 Theory of equations
Revised and expanded

515.353 Partial differential equations

515.39 Dynamical systems
New number and subdivision relocated from 515.35

515.94 Functions of complex variables

516.15 Geometric configurations

518 Numerical analysis
New number and subdivisions relocated from different parts of 510

519.236 Martingales
Relocated from 519.287

519.6 Mathematical optimization
Relocated from 519.3 and expanded

523.24 Extrasolar systems
New number*

530.1433 Quantum electrodynamics
Relocated from 537.67*

543 Analytical chemistry
Revised; 544 Qualitative analysis, 545 Quantitative analysis, and 547.3
Analytical organic chemistry relocated here

547.2 Organic chemical reactions
Relocated from 547.139

551.46 Hydrosphere and submarine geology Oceanography
Revised and expanded

551.556 Ice storms
Relocated from 551.559*

560.41 Fossilization (Taphonomy)
560.43 Trace fossils
560.47 Micropaleontology
New numbers

561.11 Stratigraphic paleobotany
New number and subdivisions

569.9 Hominidae

578.62 [Biology of] Nonnative species
New number. Similar new numbers at 581.62 and 591.62

579.171 Specific ecosystem processes of ecology
579.172 Specific factors affecting ecology
New numbers and subdivisions. Similar new numbers and subdivisions
at 581.71–.72 and 591.71–.72

591.57 Locomotion [of animals]
New number

597.8 Amphibia (Amphibians)

597.9 Reptilia (Reptiles)

610.73 Nursing and services of allied health personnel

611.01816 Physiological genetics

612.823 Emotions, conscious mental processes, intelligence
New number and subdivisions

613.66 Self-defense
Prevention of violent crimes for individuals relocated from 362.88

613.663 Rape prevention for individuals
Relocated from 362.883

613.718 Stretching exercises, and exercises for muscles of specific parts of body
New number and subdivisions

613.72 Massage
Relocated from 646.75

613.79 Relaxation, rest, sleep

614.1 Forensic medicine

614.3 Incidence of injuries and wounds
New number

614.579 [Incidence of and public measures to prevent] Gram-positive bacterial
New number and subdivisions

614.58 [Incidence of and public measures to prevent] Viral diseases
Relocated from 614.575

615.822 Therapeutic massage

616.027 Experimental medicine
Relocated from 619*

616.1–.9 Specific diseases
617 Miscellaneous branches of medicine Surgery
618.1–.8 Gynecology and obstetrics
Add tables revised and expanded

616.372 Cystic fibrosis
616.515 Photosensitivity disorders
616.517 Urticaria (Hives)
616.6921 Male infertility
616.6922 Impotence
616.772 Systemic lupus erythematosus
616.773 Marfan syndrome
616.775 Sjogren’s syndrome
616.839 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
New numbers

616.8491 Headaches
Expanded; migraine relocated from 616.857 to 616.84912

616.856 Diseases of cranial, spinal, peripheral nerves
Relocated from 616.87


616.8569 Diseases of autonomic nervous system
Relocated from 616.88

616.8581 Personality disorders
New number

616.85882 Autism
Relocated from 616.8982

616.91 Virus diseases
Relocated from 616.925; revised and expanded

616.929 Gram-positive bacterial infections
New number and subdivisions

617.033 Self-help devices for persons with disabilities
617.057 Endoscopic surgery
617.058 Laser surgery
617.172 Cumulative trauma disorders
617.441 [Surgery of] Bone marrow
617.6922 Crowns
617.693 Dental implantation
New numbers

617.919 Surgical complications; preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative care
Expanded; surgical complications relocated from 617.01

617.95 Cosmetic and restorative plastic surgery, transplantation of tissue and
organs, implantation of artificial tissue and organs

618.24 Prenatal care and preparation for childbirth

618.32686 Substance-related disorders
618.36 Pregnancy complications due to co-occurrence of pregnancy and disease
in the mother
New numbers and subdivisions

618.9202 Infants
Relocated from 618.92000832 and expanded

621.38806 High-definition television (HDTV)
621.38807 Digital television
New numbers

621.399 Devices for special computer methods

624.1526 Blasting
624.17725 Columns
New numbers

624.21–.24 Specific kinds of bridges
Relocated from 624.3–624.8

629.893 Specific kinds of robots
New number and subdivisions

641.308 Food additives
641.532 Brunches
641.534 Box and bag lunches
641.536 Afternoon teas
641.538 Suppers
641.539 Snacks
641.5611 Cooking for one
641.5612 Cooking for two
641.56222 Cooking for infants
641.56318 [Cooking for] Persons with food allergies
641.56319 [Cooking for] Pregnant women
641.56323 Low-salt cooking
641.56383 Low-carbohydrate cooking
641.563837 Sugar-free cooking
641.56384 Low-fat cooking
641.563847 Low-cholesterol cooking
641.5686 Christmas cooking
641.5892 [Cooking with] Food processors
641.5893 [Cooking with] Blenders
641.774 Stir frying
641.8157 Muffins
641.819 Garnishes
641.8236 Chili
641.8248 Pizza
641.8642 Gelatins
641.8644 Puddings
641.86539 Cake decoration
New numbers

642.56 [Meals in] Health care facilities
642.57 [Meals in] Schools
642.79 Napkin folding
New numbers


643.2 Special kinds of housing

643.556 Swimming pools
New number

645.12 Rugs
645.32 Draperies
New numbers

646.7247 Braiding [hair]
New number

650.11 Time management
New number

650.142 Résumés, cover letters, job applications
New number; résumé writing relocated from 808.06665*

650.144 Employment interviewing
New number

651.792 Intranets
New number

657.837 [Accounting for] Hotels and restaurants

658.0412 Home-based business
New number

658.16 Reorganization and dissolution of enterprises

658.3123 Telecommuting
658.4058 Contracting out
New numbers

658.8 Management of marketing

659.144 Advertising in digital media
New number

704.94343 [Iconography of] Flowers
New number

736.96 Sand sculpture
New number

745.514 Woodburning (Pyrography)
New number

745.59416 [Decorative objects related to] Holidays
New number and subdivisions*

775 Digital photography
New number

776 Computer art (Digital art)
Relocated from 709.04 and expanded

794.72 Billiards
794.73 Pocket billiards
Revised and expanded*

796.046 Extreme sports
New number*

796.5224 Sport climbing
New number*

796.67 Street luge racing
New number

796.939 Snowboarding
New number*

810–890 Literatures of specific languages and language families
Extended application of standard literary periods for affiliated
literatures, i.e., for literature in English by authors not from the U.S.,
Canada, or Europe; and for literature in French, Spanish, and
Portuguese by authors not from Europe*

839.5 North Germanic literatures (Nordic literatures)
839.6 Old Norse (Old Icelandic), Icelandic, Faeroese literatures
839.7 Swedish literature
839.8 Danish and Norwegian literatures

891.469 Konkani literature
New number*

910.46 Facilities for travelers
Relocated from 647.94. Similar development at 06 in the 913–919 add

936 Europe north and west of Italian Peninsula to ca. 499
New numbers for historical periods of Europe

939.4 Middle East to 640
939.7 North Africa to ca. 640
New numbers for historical periods

940–990 General history of modern world, of extraterrestrial worlds
New historical periods introduced throughout 940–990, e.g., 973.93
[United States in] 2001–

940.5318 Holocaust

940.542 [World War II] Campaigns and battles by theater
Revised and expanded

943 Central Europe Germany
Numbers for historical periods revised and expanded*

945.85 Malta
New numbers for historical periods*

948 Scandinavia
Numbers for historical periods revised and expanded*

949.12 Iceland
Numbers for historical periods revised and expanded*

951.2506 [Hong Kong in] 1997–
New number*

951.26 Macau
New numbers for historical periods*

959.6 Cambodia
Numbers for historical periods revised and expanded*

959.87 East Timor
Relocated from 959.86*

963.5 Eritrea
Numbers for historical periods revised and expanded*

985 Peru
987 Venezuela
Numbers for historical periods revised and expanded

*Introduced in an interim update prior to the publication of Edition 22

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